Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the predominant type of stroke. A stroke occurs when blood to the brain is either blocked or interrupted by blood clots or ruptured blood vessels. This deprives the brain of oxygen and nutrients, ultimately leading to the death of brain cells. AIS occurs due to an obstructed blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain. It is most commonly manifested by focal neurological deficits. It is among the leading cause of mortality.
The primary goal of AIS is to keep the amount of brain injury as small as possible. There is a clot-dissolving drug called IV Alteplase to treat stroke. It can stop a stroke in progress and reduce disability from stroke by breaking up a blood clot that might be stopping the flow of blood to the brain.
According to study, “Acute Ischemic Stroke: Epidemiology Forecast to 2027” some of the major companies that are currently working in the acute ischemic stroke are Abbott Laboratories, Medtronic plc, Boston Scientific Corporation, Cordis Corporation, Koninklijke Philips N.V., GE Healthcare, Siemens AG, Stryker Corporation, Genentech, Inc. and Merck & Co., Inc.
Some symptoms of AIS are numbness or weakness on one side of the body, loss of vision, loss of balance or coordination, confusion, falling or difficulty walking, difficulty speaking or trouble understanding what others are saying and a sudden headache (a stiff neck, facial pain, pain between eyes or vomiting) etc.
The major risk factors associated with the development of AIS include both modifiable and non-modifiable conditions, such as hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, age, and family history of stroke.
There are many diagnosis treatments included for AIS such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), carotid ultrasound, cerebral angiography, and electrocardiography. CT test can show areas of abnormalities in the brain and can help to determine if these areas are caused by insufficient blood flow (ischemic stroke), a ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), or a different kind of a problem. MRI test is used to determine stroke mechanisms that affect prognosis. Ultrasound imaging involves exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body: carotid is a technique of ultrasound. Cerebral angiography technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Electrocardiography technique is used to determine the frequency and significance of acute ischemic stroke: it is used as a screening test for sources of cardiac embolism in patients with stroke.
Some therapeutic treatments are tissue plasminogen activator, anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antihypertensive. Tissue plasminogen activator is used to increase a patient’s chance of recovering from an ischemic stroke without any or only minimal, disability or neurologic deficit within 3hours of symptom onset, also called t-PA. Anticoagulant is either used to prevent a clot forming in the blood or to treat clots that have already formed. The most common anticoagulant medication is warfarin. An antiplatelet therapy is used to decreasing platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. An antihypertensive therapy is used to prevent the complications of high blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke.
In 2017, the US had the highest number of diagnosed prevalent cases with 6,760,839, while Spain had the lowest number of diagnosed prevalent cases with 346,779. In 2017, China had the highest number of first-ever diagnosed incident cases with 1,735,727, while the UK had the lowest number of first-ever diagnosed incident cases with 50,803. According to global data epidemiologists forecast, in 2017, the annual growth rate of the diagnosed incident cases of AIS was 4.43%, which will be increased from 2,570,175 cases to 3,708,465 cases in 2027.
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Ankur Gupta, Head Marketing & Communications